There seems to be a certain romantic flair to owning your own wine cellar. However, there is a very practical side to this as well. The price of wine has been increasing exponentially since before the year 2000. As a result, many wines have become prohibitively expensive and even more so in the past couple of years with the U.S. imposing trade restrictions on wine imports. This has resulted in reduced sales of, and decreased profit margins for international wine producers which have led to further increases in wine prices.
Many wines are now prohibitively expensive, even those that have been aged just a few years in the bottle. The solution requires individuals to purchase cellarable wines at a young age and store them until they attain the desirable age for consumption.
The simplest storage option would be to purchase a wine fridge. This provides a relatively inexpensive solution but is really only practical for short term storage for a minimal number of bottles of wine.
If you are looking to cellar more than just a few bottles for a significant period of time, I recommend doing what I have done, convert or construct a room for the purpose of storing wine. Such a room needs to meet certain criteria necessary for the preservation of wine. Things that need to be taken into account are temperature, light, humidity, odours, storage, and record-keeping.
Wine that is being stored for a long period of time should be stored at a temperature between 45 oF to 68oF or 7oC to 20oC. Ideally the temperature should be maintained between 55oF and 57oF or 13oC to 14oC.
Temperature fluctuation between hot and cold can have more of an impact on wine than the actual temperature. If the temperature rises and falls quickly with the change of season, negative or positive pressure can occur within the bottle. This would place pressure and strain on the cork which can result in air seepage that would compromises the quality of the wine.
Colour, taste and smell are all impacted by light filtering into the wine bottle. Therefore the storage area should not be infiltrated by outside light. Artificial lighting should only be switched on when necessary and fluorescent lighting should never be used.
According to the experts the level of humidity of the cellar should be between 75% and 85%. The higher than normal humidity level is required in order to prevent the corks from drying out and shrinking which could result in spoilage of the wine.
Such high levels can result in mold and other moisture related issues so I have opted to maintain humidity at a slightly lower level; between 62% and 65%. I have maintained these levels for the past 10 years and have had no issues with either the wine or the building structure.
Although wine corks prevent the wine from escaping from the bottle they don’t prevent gases from penetrating through. Therefore things such as paint, sealant, cleaning agents or air fresheners should not be used or stored within the wine storage area.
Wine bottles should be stored on their side for a couple of reasons. The most obvious of which is to ensure that the cork remains moist and doesn’t dry out and as a result shrink. If the cork shrinks and allows oxygen into the bottle, the wine quickly spoils.
Even though not all wine has a cork any more, another reason for laying a bottle on its side is to allow for the equal distribution of the sediment that is often found in a wine with high tannin content. During the aging process the tannins can solidify and drop to the bottom. With the bottle lying on its side, the solids are distributed more evenly, keeping the flavour of the wine consistent.
Once you have placed your bottle in its resting place, it should not be disturbed until you retrieve it to drink. You don’t want to shake up the tannins that have been slowly settling in the bottle.
The wine cellar is pretty much rendered useless unless you have a way of knowing which wines should be held, which ones are drinkable, and the final date the wine should be consumed by. This can be done in a couple of different ways.
If you have a small collection, each bottle or shelf can be labelled with the “drink from” date and the “drink by” date. For a larger collection the wine should be catalogued in either a cellar book or an electronic spreadsheet. Cellar inventory books can often be purchased at stationery stores, kitchen supply shops or specialty book stores.
Personally, I have used a spreadsheet for this purpose for the last dozen or more years. In addition to tracking the consumption dates, I also track the label name, vintner name, varietal, country of origin, year produced, reviewer notes, and a few other facts.
The big advantage to having your own personal wine cellar is that you can drink wines of a vintage you would otherwise consider an extravagance. It is very satisfying to open an aged bottle of wine that would have a current purchase price (if you could even locate one) in the hundred to two hundred dollar range knowing that you purchased it for much less.
Generally speaking, I am able to locate cellarable wines at my local liquor store at a cost ranging from $17 to $50. When selecting wines to cellar you can spend as little or as much as you like.
However, when laying down a wine it is important to understand the difference between the length of time a wine can be cellared before it begins to deteriorate and the time it needs to reach its peak. That is a discussion for another day.
Also a discussion for another day would be identifying and understanding the requirements for creating a proper storage facility.